I hope you had a good few days without any A&P input and ....hopefully are ready for more:) We are now starting my favorite section, bones and muscles. I have created lecture videos again for you to view before the class.
Please print or download the Class Notes provided below. I also suggest you print the Preview Questions. Then, watch the Lecture Videos and answer the questions. When you are done, email me the answers to [email protected] Please do so before class to receive credit for your work.
5.1. All bones in a body put together make up a skeleton. We have four limbs attach to a central trunk to maneuver the world around us. The appendicular skeleton is composed of those limbs. What do we call the body’s trunk?
5.2. Looking at a head, one sees a face and knows there is a brain behind it. A skull is composed of many bones, some concern themselves with enclosing the brain, others create the facial features. Can you list the different bones making up the skull cap/calvarium?
5.3. The first bone to consider is the one you touch scratching your forehead. It sits right in front of you head, so it’s conveniently called the frontal bone. On it we find the bony part of the eyebrows as well as the roof of the eye socket. List a couple of other features of this bone.
5.4. Two other bones are behind it, one on either side, just above the ears. They make up a large bulk of the top of one’s head. One of the main chewing muscles attach to it. (You can feel it by placing your fingers above the ears and biting down.) What is that bone called?
5.5. If you touch the top of your head, it is quite smooth and rounded. If you push a little deeper and rub your fingers across it lengthwise, you will likely find a shallow ridge; your finger just crossed a joint, which is a connection between two bones. Normally, we think of a joint as being in the knee or in fingers; we understand them easier, because in those, muscles move the bones around. Between skull bones, we find bony ridges of one bone interlocking with some from another. They are reinforced with collagen fibers, so that they don’t really move much, just a tiny little bit. What is the suture between the two parietal bones called?
5.6. When a baby is first born, the skull plates are not fully formed. This is good, because in birth, the biggest body part is the head and if it weren’t flexible, the baby would get stuck in the birth canal. Not fully formed skull plates though also leaves areas that are very soft, delicate, and vulnerable, because only a membrane protects the brain itself. What do we call the 2 main soft spots?
5.7. That brings me to the bone behind the ears. It has the ear canal in it and actually houses the entire hearing apparatus that transforms soundwaves into a nerve impulse. It also forms the posterior foundation for the cheekbone. What other features do we find on the temporal bone?
5.8. The back of your head has a couple of interesting bumps and ridges on them. Those actually form muscle attachments. Another major feature of the occipital bone is the hole for the brain to exit the head and become the spinal cord. What is that feature called?
5.9. That brings us to the inside of the chamber for the brain. Taking the top of the skull off and looking down, one can find three main areas that actually lay on three different levels. What are those areas called?
5.10. You can only see a little bit of the next bone on the outside of a skull. Most of it is on the inside, as it crosses through it from side to side. It is known as the key stone of the cranial floor. Why is that?
5.11. The last bone technically part of the calvarium that houses the brain lies behind the nose. It is very delicate and helps us with the function of smelling. What bone am I talking about?
5.12. The maxilla is the central bone of the face; all others attach to it. It’s where the upper teeth attach to the bone. What are teeth sockets called?
5.13. The front part of the roof of the mouth is part of the maxilla. The back part is its own bone. What is it called?
5.14. A small bone on the medial side of each eye socket holds the drainage canal for tears. It’s called the lacrimal bone. In between the two eye sockets lies the bridge of the nose. It is made up of two small bones, one on either side. What are their names?
5.15. The cheeks are made of their own bones that have quite a funny sounding, somewhat difficult name. What is it?
5.16. When one looks up the nose of a skull, we can see three rounded, downward facing plates of bone that reach out from the sides of each nasal cavity. They are covered with lots of blood vessels that can bring warmth to the area and heat up air we inhale. What is the lowest ones of those bony frameworks for our ’nose heaters’ called?
5.17. The nose is divided into a right and left nasal chamber; the perpendicular plate of the ethmoid bone creates most of the bony wall in the middle. A ‘plow’ looking bone anchors the plate. What bone am I talking about?
5.18. The lower jaw bone is pretty much the only one that moves quite freely up and down. To do so, the mandible has areas of muscle attachments. The coronoid process is where the temporalis muscles, the one we discussed when looking at the parietal bones, attach. The bar looking structure on the side is for another powerful chewing muscle. What is that part of the bone called?
5.19. That brings us to the front of the neck, which houses the only bone in the body that doesn’t attach to another bone and only has muscles attach to it. It helps us with swallowing. What is that bone called?
Please email me the answers before class begins to [email protected] in order to get credit for it.
During the LAB, you will be drawing bones and muscles life size onto a large paper. In this section, I ask you to work in groups of 2. One will trace the others body outline and together, you draw in the parts that we're discussing and label the terms provided on term lists. Each section will have a term list, which spells out which terms I like for you to know and study. Term List
Watch the videos to get a better understanding of how that lab works:
Also, when you study the anatomy terms, one of the best ways to get them stick in your head are retrieval exercises. I post blank pictures of the body part we study. You can print those out and use them to test your knowledge when you study. Labelling exercise
We also have LAB term description handouts. They are originally written by Dr. Hank Fabian and used in his Bio2 class. I have modified them to fit this class. They are very helpful when learning body parts. I don't mandate you use them, but recommend you print one and see how you like it in clarifying parts or aiding your study of them. Skull term description handout
Here is an audio of the in-class presentation:
These next videos are designed to show you the discussed body parts on models. They are helpful to watch because in class, we deal with the models. We also test on the same models, so it can be useful to watch those multiple times before the test. The first one was made for the bio2 class, which just shows some extra terms on it. The second video was specifically made for the Bio24 class.